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    Sparta War

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    Sparta War

    Sparta war in diesem Bündnissystem Hegemonialmacht. Für die Bündner bestand die Pflicht zur Heeresfolge. Sie genossen dafür Schutz bei Angriffen von​. Ursprünglich umfassten Sparta einmal fünf Dörfer. Im 8. Jahrhundert v. Chr. eroberten die Spartaner das Umland Lakonien. Dieses Land war sehr fruchtbar und. Wir schreiben das 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr.: Das antike Griechenland ist in Aufruhr und unterliegt der Bedrohung von Xerxes und seiner persischen Armee.

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    Ursprünglich umfassten Sparta einmal fünf Dörfer. Im 8. Jahrhundert v. Chr. eroberten die Spartaner das Umland Lakonien. Dieses Land war sehr fruchtbar und. Sparta: War of Empires ist ein Freemium-MMO Strategie-Videospiel, des Spieleentwicklers Plarium für Webbrowser. Das Spiel wurde im März ins Leben gerufen. Sparta - War of Empires: Alles, was du über die Wächter wissen solltest. Im kostenlosen Strategiespiel Sparta: War of Empires hast du die Gelegenheit, die.

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    Sparta: War of Empires ist ein Freemium-MMO Strategie-Videospiel, des Spieleentwicklers Plarium für Webbrowser. Das Spiel wurde im März ins Leben gerufen. Wir schreiben das 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr.: Das antike Griechenland ist in Aufruhr und unterliegt der Bedrohung von Xerxes und seiner persischen Armee. Sparta: War of Empires ist ein strategisches MMO-Videospiel, in dem Spieler vor der Aufgabe stehen, ihre eigene Stadt zu erbauen, Truppen auszubilden und in. Sparta, im Süden der Peloponnes gelegen, war in der Antike der Hauptort der Landschaft Lakonien und des Staates der Lakedaimonier. Sein Name wird im.

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    Sparta War

    While they played no role in the military, female Spartans often received a formal education, although separate from boys and not at boarding schools.

    In part to attract mates, females engaged in athletic competitions, including javelin-throwing and wrestling, and also sang and danced competitively.

    As adults, Spartan women were allowed to own and manage property. Additionally, they were typically unencumbered by domestic responsibilities such as cooking, cleaning and making clothing, tasks which were handled by the helots.

    Marriage was important to Spartans, as the state put pressure on people to have male children who would grow up to become citizen-warriors, and replace those who died in battle.

    Men who delayed marriage were publicly shamed, while those who fathered multiple sons could be rewarded. In preparation for marriage, Spartan women had their heads shaved; they kept their hair short after they wed.

    Married couples typically lived apart, as men under 30 were required to continue residing in communal barracks. In order to see their wives during this time, husbands had to sneak away at night.

    In B. In a further blow, late the following year, Theban general Epaminondas c. The Spartans would continue to exist, although as a second-rate power in a long period of decline.

    In ,Otto , the king of Greece, ordered the founding of the modern-day town of Sparti on the site of ancient Sparta. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!

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    By turns charismatic and ruthless, brilliant and power hungry, diplomatic and The two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece, Athens and Sparta, went to war with each other from to B.

    The Peloponnesian War marked a significant power shift in ancient Greece, favoring Sparta, and also ushered in a period of regional decline that signaled the The so-called golden age of Athenian culture flourished under the leadership of Pericles B.

    Pericles transformed his The Battle of Marathon in B. Descendants of non-Spartan citizens were forbidden the agoge. The Spartans were a minority of the Lakonian population.

    The helots were originally free Greeks from the areas of Messenia and Lakonia whom the Spartans had defeated in battle and subsequently enslaved. In contrast to populations conquered by other Greek cities [ citation needed ] e.

    Instead, the helots were given a subordinate position in society more comparable to serfs in medieval Europe than chattel slaves in the rest of Greece.

    Helots did not have voting or political rights. In other Greek city-states, free citizens were part-time soldiers who, when not at war, carried on other trades.

    Since Spartan men were full-time soldiers, they were not available to carry out manual labour. Helot women were often used as wet nurses.

    Helots also travelled with the Spartan army as non-combatant serfs. At the last stand of the Battle of Thermopylae , the Greek dead included not just the legendary three hundred Spartan soldiers but also several hundred Thespian and Theban troops and a number of helots.

    There was at least one helot revolt c. Slave revolts occurred elsewhere in the Greek world, and in BCE 20, Athenian slaves ran away to join the Spartan forces occupying Attica.

    As the Spartiate population declined and the helot population continued to grow, the imbalance of power caused increasing tension. They assign to the Helots every shameful task leading to disgrace.

    Moreover, if any exceeded the vigour proper to a slave's condition, they made death the penalty; and they allotted a punishment to those controlling them if they failed to rebuke those who were growing fat.

    Plutarch also states that Spartans treated the Helots "harshly and cruelly": they compelled them to drink pure wine which was considered dangerous — wine usually being cut with water " Each year when the Ephors took office, they ritually declared war on the helots, allowing Spartans to kill them without risk of ritual pollution.

    The helots were invited by a proclamation to pick out those of their number who claimed to have most distinguished themselves against the enemy, in order that they might receive their freedom; the object being to test them, as it was thought that the first to claim their freedom would be the most high spirited and the most apt to rebel.

    As many as two thousand were selected accordingly, who crowned themselves and went round the temples, rejoicing in their new freedom.

    The Spartans, however, soon afterwards did away with them, and no one ever knew how each of them perished.

    The Perioikoi came from similar origins as the helots but occupied a significantly different position in Spartan society. Although they did not enjoy full citizen-rights, they were free and not subjected to the same restrictions as the helots.

    The exact nature of their subjection to the Spartans is not clear, but they seem to have served partly as a kind of military reserve, partly as skilled craftsmen and partly as agents of foreign trade.

    Full citizen Spartiates were barred by law from trade or manufacture, which consequently rested in the hands of the Perioikoi. Allegedly, Spartans were prohibited from possessing gold and silver coins, and according to legend Spartan currency consisted of iron bars to discourage hoarding.

    Allegedly as part of the Lycurgan Reforms in the mid-8th century BCE, a massive land reform had divided property into 9, equal portions. Each citizen received one estate, a kleros , which was expected to provide his living.

    From the other half, the Spartiate was expected to pay his mess syssitia fees, and the agoge fees for his children. However, we know nothing of matters of wealth such as how land was bought, sold, and inherited, or whether daughters received dowries.

    Attempts were made to remedy this by imposing legal penalties upon bachelors, [23] but this could not reverse the trend.

    Sparta was above all a militarist state, and emphasis on military fitness began virtually at birth. Shortly after birth, a mother would bathe her child in wine to see whether the child was strong.

    If the child survived it was brought before the Gerousia by the child's father. The Gerousia then decided whether it was to be reared or not.

    Rather than being an exception, then, it has been the rule. When Spartans died, marked headstones would only be granted to soldiers who died in combat during a victorious campaign or women who died either in service of a divine office or in childbirth.

    When male Spartans began military training at age seven, they would enter the agoge system. The agoge was designed to encourage discipline and physical toughness and to emphasize the importance of the Spartan state.

    Boys lived in communal messes and, according to Xenophon, whose sons attended the agoge , the boys were fed "just the right amount for them never to become sluggish through being too full, while also giving them a taste of what it is not to have enough.

    Special punishments were imposed if boys failed to answer questions sufficiently 'laconically' i. Sparta boys were expected to take an older male mentor, usually an unmarried young man.

    According to some sources, the older man was expected to function as a kind of substitute father and role model to his junior partner; however, others believe it was reasonably certain that they had sexual relations the exact nature of Spartan pederasty is not entirely clear.

    Xenophon, an admirer of the Spartan educational system whose sons attended the agoge , explicitly denies the sexual nature of the relationship.

    Some Spartan youth apparently became members of an irregular unit known as the Krypteia. The immediate objective of this unit was to seek out and kill vulnerable helot Laconians as part of the larger program of terrorising and intimidating the helot population.

    Less information is available about the education of Spartan girls, but they seem to have gone through a fairly extensive formal educational cycle, broadly similar to that of the boys but with less emphasis on military training.

    In this respect, classical Sparta was unique in ancient Greece. In no other city-state did women receive any kind of formal education.

    At age 20, the Spartan citizen began his membership in one of the syssitia dining messes or clubs , composed of about fifteen members each, of which every citizen was required to be a member.

    The Spartans were not eligible for election for public office until the age of Only native Spartans were considered full citizens and were obliged to undergo the training as prescribed by law, as well as participate in and contribute financially to one of the syssitia.

    Sparta is thought to be the first city to practice athletic nudity, and some scholars claim that it was also the first to formalize pederasty.

    The agoge , the education of the ruling class, was, they claim, founded on pederastic relationships required of each citizen, [] with the lover responsible for the boy's training.

    However, other scholars question this interpretation. Xenophon explicitly denies it, [97] but not Plutarch.

    Spartan men remained in the active reserve until age Men were encouraged to marry at age 20 but could not live with their families until they left their active military service at age They called themselves " homoioi " equals , pointing to their common lifestyle and the discipline of the phalanx , which demanded that no soldier be superior to his comrades.

    Spartans buried their battle dead on or near the battle field; corpses were not brought back on their hoplons. Thus the shield was symbolic of the individual soldier's subordination to his unit, his integral part in its success, and his solemn responsibility to his comrades in arms — messmates and friends, often close blood relations.

    According to Aristotle, the Spartan military culture was actually short-sighted and ineffective. He observed:.

    It is the standards of civilized men not of beasts that must be kept in mind, for it is good men not beasts who are capable of real courage.

    Those like the Spartans who concentrate on the one and ignore the other in their education turn men into machines and in devoting themselves to one single aspect of city's life, end up making them inferior even in that.

    One of the most persistent myths about Sparta that has no basis in fact is the notion that Spartan mothers were without feelings toward their off-spring and helped enforce a militaristic lifestyle on their sons and husbands.

    In some of these sayings, mothers revile their sons in insulting language merely for surviving a battle. These sayings purporting to be from Spartan women were far more likely to be of Athenian origin and designed to portray Spartan women as unnatural and so undeserving of pity.

    Sparta's agriculture consisted mainly of barley, wine, cheese, grain, and figs. These items were grown locally on each Spartan citizen's kleros and were tended to by helots.

    Spartan citizens were required to donate a certain amount of what they yielded from their kleros to their syssitia, or mess. These donations to the syssitia were a requirement for every Spartan citizen.

    All the donated food was then redistributed to feed the Spartan population of that syssitia. The custom was to capture women for marriage The so-called 'bridesmaid' took charge of the captured girl.

    She first shaved her head to the scalp, then dressed her in a man's cloak and sandals, and laid her down alone on a mattress in the dark.

    The bridegroom — who was not drunk and thus not impotent, but was sober as always — first had dinner in the messes, then would slip in, undo her belt, lift her and carry her to the bed.

    The husband continued to visit his wife in secret for some time after the marriage. These customs, unique to the Spartans, have been interpreted in various ways.

    One of them decidedly supports the need to disguise the bride as a man in order to help the bridegroom consummate the marriage, so unaccustomed were men to women's looks at the time of their first intercourse.

    The "abduction" may have served to ward off the evil eye , and the cutting of the wife's hair was perhaps part of a rite of passage that signaled her entrance into a new life.

    Spartan women, of the citizenry class, enjoyed a status, power, and respect that was unknown in the rest of the classical world.

    The higher status of females in Spartan society started at birth; unlike Athens, Spartan girls were fed the same food as their brothers. The reasons for delaying marriage were to ensure the birth of healthy children, but the effect was to spare Spartan women the hazards and lasting health damage associated with pregnancy among adolescents.

    Spartan women, better fed from childhood and fit from exercise, stood a far better chance of reaching old age than their sisters in other Greek cities, where the median age for death was Unlike Athenian women who wore heavy, concealing clothes and were rarely seen outside the house, Spartan women wore dresses peplos slit up the side to allow freer movement and moved freely about the city, either walking or driving chariots.

    Girls as well as boys exercised, possibly in the nude, and young women as well as young men may have participated in the Gymnopaedia "Festival of Nude Youths".

    In accordance with the Spartan belief that breeding should be between the most physically fit parents, many older men allowed younger, more fit men, to impregnate their wives.

    Other unmarried or childless men might even request another man's wife to bear his children if she had previously been a strong child bearer.

    The Spartan population was hard to maintain due to the constant absence and loss of the men in battle and the intense physical inspection of newborns.

    Spartan women were also literate and numerate, a rarity in the ancient world. Furthermore, as a result of their education and the fact that they moved freely in society engaging with their fellow male citizens, they were notorious for speaking their minds even in public.

    Plato goes on to praise Spartan women's ability when it came to philosophical discussion. Most importantly, Spartan women had economic power because they controlled their own properties, and those of their husbands.

    Unlike women in Athens, if a Spartan woman became the heiress of her father because she had no living brothers to inherit an epikleros , the woman was not required to divorce her current spouse in order to marry her nearest paternal relative.

    Many women played a significant role in the history of Sparta. Herodotus records that as a small girl she advised her father Cleomenes to resist a bribe.

    She was later said to be responsible for decoding a warning that the Persian forces were about to invade Greece; after Spartan generals could not decode a wooden tablet covered in wax, she ordered them to clear the wax, revealing the warning.

    Laconophilia is love or admiration of Sparta and its culture or constitution. Sparta was subject of considerable admiration in its day, even in rival Athens.

    In ancient times "Many of the noblest and best of the Athenians always considered the Spartan state nearly as an ideal theory realised in practice.

    With the revival of classical learning in Renaissance Europe , Laconophilia re-appeared, for example in the writings of Machiavelli.

    The Elizabethan English constitutionalist John Aylmer compared the mixed government of Tudor England to the Spartan republic, stating that "Lacedemonia [was] the noblest and best city governed that ever was".

    He commended it as a model for England. The philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau contrasted Sparta favourably with Athens in his Discourse on the Arts and Sciences , arguing that its austere constitution was preferable to the more sophisticated Athenian life.

    Sparta was also used as a model of austere purity by Revolutionary and Napoleonic France. A German racist strain of Laconophilia was initiated by Karl Otfried Müller , who linked Spartan ideals to the supposed racial superiority of the Dorians, the ethnic sub-group of the Greeks to which the Spartans belonged.

    In the 20th century, this developed into Fascist admiration of Spartan ideals. Adolf Hitler praised the Spartans, recommending in that Germany should imitate them by limiting "the number allowed to live".

    He added that "The Spartans were once capable of such a wise measure The subjugation of , Helots by 6, Spartans was only possible because of the racial superiority of the Spartans.

    Certain early Zionists, and particularly the founders of Kibbutz movement in Israel, were influenced by Spartan ideals, particularly in education.

    Tabenkin , a founding father of the Kibbutz movement and the Palmach strikeforce, prescribed that education for warfare "should begin from the nursery", that children should from kindergarten be taken to "spend nights in the mountains and valleys".

    In modern times, the adjective "spartan" means simple, frugal, avoiding luxury and comfort. Sparta also features prominently in modern popular culture , most famously the Battle of Thermopylae see Battle of Thermopylae in popular culture.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Indeed, the Spartans ascribed their subsequent success to Lycurgus, who instituted his reforms at a time when Sparta was weakened by internal dissent and lacked the stability of a united and well-organized community.

    Lazenby suggests, that the dual monarchy may date from this period as a result of a fusion of the four villages of Sparta which had, up until then, formed two factions of the villages of Pitana-Mesoa against the villages of Limnai-Konoura.

    According to this view, the Kings, who tradition says ruled before this time, were either totally mythical or at best factional chieftains.

    The Dorians seem to have set about expanding the frontiers of Spartan territory almost before they had established their own state.

    The evidence suggests that Sparta, relatively inaccessible because of the topography of the plain of Sparta, was secure from early on: it was never fortified.

    Sparta shared the plain with Amyklai which lay to the south and was one of the few places to survive from Mycaenean times and was likely to be its most formidable neighbor.

    Hence the tradition that Sparta, under its kings Archelaos and Charillos moved north to secure the upper Eurotas valley is plausible.

    It is probable that the inhabitants of Geronthrae were driven out while those of Amyklai were simply subjugated to Sparta.

    Tyrtaeus tells that the war to conquer the Messenians , their neighbors on the west, led by Theopompus , lasted 19 years and was fought in the time of the fathers of our fathers.

    If this phrase is to be taken literally, it would mean that the war occurred around the end of the 8th century BC or the beginning of the 7th.

    However, in the opinion of Kennell, a fragment of Tyrtaeus published in gives us some confidence that it really occurred probably in the later 7th century.

    Whether Sparta dominated the regions to its east at the time is less settled. According to Herodotus the Argives ' territory once included the whole of Cynuria the east coast of the Peloponnese and the island of Cythera.

    During the following centuries, Sparta's reputation as a land-fighting force was unequaled. Early in the 6th century BC, the Spartan kings Leon and Agasicles made a vigorous attack on Tegea , the most powerful of the Arcadian cities.

    For some time Sparta had no success against Tegea and suffered a notable defeat at the Battle of the Fetters —the name reflected Spartan intentions to force the Tegea to recognise it as hegemon.

    Forrest, hesitantly attributes this change to Ephor Chilon. In BC, King Cleomenes I , launched what was intended to be a final settling of accounts with the city of Argos — an invasion, with the capture of the city itself, as the objective.

    Croesus of Lydia had formed an alliance with it. Scythian envoys sought its aid to stem the invasion of Darius ; to Sparta, the Greeks of Asia Minor appealed to withstand the Persian advance and to aid the Ionian Revolt ; Plataea asked for Sparta's protection; Megara acknowledged its supremacy; and at the time of the Persian invasion under Xerxes no state questioned Sparta's right to lead the Greek forces on land or at sea.

    At the end of the 6th century BC, Sparta made its first intervention north of the Isthmus when it aided in overthrowing the Athenian tyrant Hippias in BC.

    King Cleomenes turned up in Attica with a small body of troops to back the more conservative Isagoras, whom Cleomenes successfully installed in power.

    The Athenians, however, soon tired of the foreign king, and Cleomenes found himself expelled by the Athenians. Cleomenes then proposed an expedition of the entire Peloponnesian League, with himself and his co-King Demaratos in command and the aim of setting up Isagoras as tyrant of Athens.

    The specific aims of the expedition were kept secret. The secrecy proved disastrous and as dissension broke out the real aims became clearer.

    First the Corinthians departed. Then a row broke out between Cleomenes and Demaratos with Demaratos too, deciding to go home.

    It also seems to have changed the nature of the Peloponnesian League. From that time, major decisions were discussed. Sparta was still in charge, but it now had to rally its allies in support of its decisions.

    After hearing a plea for help from Athens who were facing the Persians at Marathon in BC, Sparta decided to honor its laws and wait until the moon was full to send an army.

    As a result, Sparta's army arrived at Marathon after the battle had been won by the Athenians. In the second campaign, conducted ten years later by Xerxes , Sparta faced the same dilemma.

    The Persians inconveniently chose to attack during the Olympic truce which the Spartans felt they must honor. Other Greek states which lacked such scruples were making a major effort to assemble a fleet — how could Sparta not contribute on land when others were doing so much on sea?

    However, there are indications that Sparta's religious scruples were merely a cover. From this interpretation, Sparta believed that the defense of Thermopylae was hopeless and wished to make a stand at the Isthmus, but they had to go through the motions or Athens might ally itself with Persia.

    The loss of Athens's fleet would simply be too great a loss to the Greek resistance to be risked. In BC, a small force of Spartans, Thespians, and Thebans led by King Leonidas approximately were full Spartiates, were Thespians, and were Thebans; these numbers do not reflect casualties incurred prior to the final battle , made a legendary last stand at the Battle of Thermopylae against the massive Persian army, inflicting very high casualties on the Persian forces before finally being encircled.

    The decisive victory of Salamis did not change Sparta's essential dilemma. Ideally, they would wish to fight at the Isthmus where they would avoid the risk of their infantry being caught in the open by the Persian cavalry.

    However, in BC, the remaining Persian forces under Mardonius devastated Attica, Athenian pressure forced Sparta to lead an advance.

    In the resulting Battle of Plataea the Greeks under the generalship of the Spartan Pausanias overthrew the lightly armed Persian infantry, killing Mardonius.

    The superior weaponry, strategy, and bronze armour of the Greek hoplites and their phalanx again proved their worth one year later when Sparta assembled at full strength and led a Greek alliance against the Persians at the battle of Plataea.

    Even though this war was won by a pan-Greek army, credit was given to Sparta, who besides being the protagonist at Thermopylae and Plataea, had been the de facto leader of the entire Greek expedition.

    When this victory led to a revolt of the Ionian Greeks it was Sparta that rejected their admission to the Hellenic alliance.

    Sparta proposed that they should abandon their homes in Anatolia and settle in the cities that had supported the Persians. However, his arrogant behavior forced his recall.

    Pausanias had so alienated the Ionians that they refused to accept the successor, Dorcis , that Sparta sent to replace him. Instead those newly liberated from Persia turned to Athens.

    In later Classical times, Sparta along with Athens , Thebes , and Persia had been the main powers fighting for supremacy against each other.

    As a result of the Peloponnesian War , Sparta, a traditionally continental culture, became a naval power. At the peak of its power Sparta subdued many of the key Greek states and even managed to overpower the elite Athenian navy.

    By the end of the 5th century BC, it stood out as a state which had defeated the Athenian Empire and had invaded the Persian provinces in Anatolia, a period which marks the Spartan Hegemony.

    The Sparta earthquake of BC destroyed much of Sparta. Historical sources suggest that the death toll may have been as high as 20,, although modern scholars suggest that this figure is likely an exaggeration.

    The earthquake sparked a revolt of the helots, the slave class of Spartan society. Events surrounding this revolt led to an increase in tension between Sparta and their rival Athens and the cancellation of a treaty between them.

    After the troops of a relief expedition dispatched by conservative Athenians were sent back with cold thanks, Athenian democracy itself fell into the hands of reformers and moved toward a more populist and anti-Spartan policy.

    Therefore, this earthquake is cited by historical sources as one of the key events that led up to the First Peloponnesian War. Sparta's attention was at this time, fully occupied by troubles nearer home; such as the revolt of Tegea in about — BC , rendered all the more formidable by the participation of Argos.

    In the immediate aftermath, the helots saw an opportunity to rebel. This was followed by the siege of Ithome which the rebel helots had fortified.

    Sparta began to fear that the Athenian troops might make common cause with the rebels. Providing the official justification that since the initial assault on Ithome had failed, what was now required was a blockade, a task the Spartans did not need Athenian help with.

    In Athens, this snub resulted in Athens breaking off its alliance with Sparta and allying with its enemy, Argos. Paul Cartledge hazards that the revolt of helots and perioeci led the Spartans to reorganize their army and integrate the perioeci into the citizen hoplite regiments.

    Certainly a system where citizens and non-citizens fought together in the same regiments was unusual for Greece.

    He agrees that the integration of perioeci and citizens occurred sometime between the Persian and the Peloponnesian Wars but doesn't regard that as a significant stage.

    The Spartans had been using non-citizens as hoplites well before that and the proportion did not change. He doubts that the Spartans ever subscribed to the citizen only hoplite force ideal, so beloved by writers such as Aristotle.

    The Peloponnesian Wars were the protracted armed conflicts, waged on sea and land, of the last half of the 5th century BC between the Delian League controlled by Athens and the Peloponnesian League dominated by Sparta over control of the other Greek city-states.

    The Delian League is often called "the Athenian Empire" by scholars. The Peloponnesian League believed it was defending itself against Athenian aggrandizement.

    The war had ethnic overtones that generally but not always applied: the Delian League included populations of Athenians and Ionians while the Peloponnesian League was mainly of Dorians , except that a third power, the Boeotians , had sided tentatively with the Peloponnesian League.

    They were never fully trusted by the Spartans. Ethnic animosity was fueled by the forced incorporation of small Dorian states into the Delian League, who appealed to Sparta.

    Motivations, however, were complex, including local politics and considerations of wealth. In the end Sparta won, but it declined soon enough and was soon embroiled with wars with Boeotia and Persia, until being overcome finally by Macedon.

    When the First Peloponnesian War broke out, Sparta was still preoccupied suppressing the helot revolt, [50] hence its involvement was somewhat desultory.

    However they then returned home giving the Athenians an opportunity to defeat the Boeotians at the battle of Oenophyta and so overthrowing Boeotia.

    By contrast, however, Sparta sought a thirty-year peace with Argos to ensure that they could strike Athens unencumbered.

    Thus Sparta was fully able to exploit the situation when Megara , Boeotia and Euboea revolted, sending an army into Attica.

    The war ended with Athens deprived of its mainland possessions but keeping its vast Aegean Empire intact. But the treaty was broken when Sparta warred with Euboea.

    Within six years, Sparta was proposing to its allies to go to war with Athens in support of the rebellion in Samos. On that occasion Corinth successfully opposed Sparta and they were voted down.

    However, according to Thucydides the real cause of the war was Sparta's fear of the growing power of Athens. Sparta entered with the proclaimed goal of the "liberation of the Greeks" — an aim that required a total defeat of Athens.

    Their method was to invade Attica in the hope of provoking Athens to give battle. Athens, meanwhile, planned a defensive war.

    The Athenians would remain in their city, behind their impenetrable walls, and use their naval superiority to harass the Spartan coastline.

    The war resumed in BC and lasted until BC. The arguments advanced in the assembly were that it would be a profitable possession and an enhancement of the empire.

    They invested a large portion of the state resources in a military expedition, but recalled one of its commanders, Alcibiades , on a trumped-up charge of impiety some religious statues had been mutilated for which he faced the death penalty.

    Escaping in his ship he deserted to Sparta. Having defaulted on the inquiry he was convicted in absentia and sentenced to death. At first Sparta hesitated to resume military operations.

    The success of Sparta and the eventual capture of Athens in BC were aided partly by that advice. He induced Sparta to send Gylippus to conduct the defence of Syracuse , to fortify Decelea in northern Attica, and to adopt a vigorous policy of aiding Athenian allies to revolt.

    The next year they marched north, fortified Deceleia , cut down all the olive groves, which produced Athens' major cash crop, and denied them the use of the countryside.

    Athens was now totally dependent on its fleet, then materially superior to the Spartan navy. Gylippus did not arrive alone at Syracuse. Collecting a significant force from Sicily and Spartan hoplites serving overseas he took command of the defense.

    The initial Athenian force under Nicias had sailed boldly into the Great Harbor of Syracuse to set up camp at the foot of the city, which was on a headland.

    Gylippus collected an international army of pro-Spartan elements from many parts of the eastern Mediterranean on the platform of liberation of Greece from the tyranny of Athens.

    Ultimately the Athenian force was not large enough to conduct an effective siege. They attempted to wall in the city but were prevented by a counter-wall.

    A second army under Demosthenes arrived. Finally the Athenian commanders staked everything on a single assault against a weak point on the headland, Epipolae, but were thrown back with great losses.

    They were about to depart for Athens when an eclipse of the full moon moved the soothsayers to insist they remain for another nine days, just the time needed for the Syracusians to prepare a fleet to block the mouth of the harbor.

    Events moved rapidly toward disaster for the Athenians. Attempting to break out of the harbor they were defeated in a naval battle. The admiral, Eurymedon , was killed.

    Losing confidence in their ability to win, they abandoned the remaining ships and the wounded and attempted to march out by land.

    The route was blocked at every crossing by Syracusians, who anticipated this move. The Athenian army marched under a rain of missiles.

    When Nicias inadvertently marched ahead of Demosthenes the Syracusians surrounded the latter and forced a surrender, to which that of Nicias was soon added.

    Both leaders were executed, despite the protests of Gylippus, who wanted to take them back to Sparta. Several thousand prisoners were penned up in the quarries without the necessities of life or the removal of the dead.

    After several months the remaining Athenians were ransomed. The failure of the expedition in was a material loss the Athenians could hardly bear, but the war continued for another ten years.

    Spartan shortcomings at sea were by this time manifest to them, especially under the tuteledge of Alcibiades.

    The lack of funds which could have proved fatal to Spartan naval warfare, was remedied by the intervention of Persia, which supplied large subsidies.

    In the agents of Tissaphernes , the Great King's governor of such parts of the coast of Asia Minor as he could control, approached Sparta with a deal.

    The Great King would supply funds for the Spartan fleet if the Spartans would guarantee to the king what he considered ancestral lands; to wit, the coast of Asia Minor with the Ionian cities.

    An agreement was reached. A Spartan fleet and negotiator was sent to Asia Minor. The negotiator was Alcibiades, now persona non-grata in Sparta because of his new mistress, the wife of King Agis, then away commanding the garrison at Deceleia.

    After befriending Tissaphernes Alcibiades was secretly offered an honorable return to Athens if he would influence the latter on their behalf. He was a double agent, — The Spartans received little money or expert advice.

    By the Great King had perceived that the agreement with the Spartans was not being implemented. He sent his brother, Cyrus the younger , to relieve Tissaphernes of his command of Lydia.

    Tissaphernes was pushed aside to the governorship of Caria. Exposed, Alcibiades departed for Athens in In his place Sparta sent an agent of similar capabilities, a friend of King Agis, Lysander , who as "a diplomat and organizer Upgrade of the Spartan fleet proceeded rapidly.

    In Alcibiades returned as the commander of an Athenian squadron with the intent of destroying the new Spartan fleet, but it was too late. He was defeated by Lysander at the Battle of Notium.

    The suspicious Athenian government repudiated its arrangement with Alcibiades. He went into exile a second time, to take up residence in a remote villa in the Aegean, now a man without a country.

    Lysander's term as navarch then came to an end.

    Sparta War His book, The Peloponnesian War, Laimer Leipzig the point of reference for studying this conflict, and it has helped us understand so much of what was going on behind the scenes. It features quick time events that require the player to complete various game controller actions in a timed sequence to defeat stronger enemies and bosses. After several months the remaining Athenians were ransomed. God of War. In Bakker, Egbert J.
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